Adenosine is a neuromodulator that regulates the body’s response to dopamine and another neurotransmitter in the brain that is responsible for motoric, emotion, learning, and memory function. Adenosine is a G-protein-coupled receptor and has four subtypes, which are A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Adenosine A2A is located in the striatum of the brain. Antagonist interferes with GABA releasing, modulates acetylcholine and releases dopamine, and also facilitates dopamine receptor’s signaling. Therefore, it can reduce motoric symptoms in Parkinson’s disease. Adenosine A2A antagonist is also believed to have neuroprotective effects. Several compounds have been reported and have undergone clinical test as selective adenosine A2A antagonists, including istradefylline, preladenant, tozadenant, vipadenant, ST-1535, and SYN-115. Nonselective adenosine A2A antagonists from natural compounds are caffeine and theophylline.
Fang et al1 reported a meta-analysis of prospective studies to determine whether there is evidence of a quantitative dose-response association between physical activity and… (weiter lesen)
The neurotransmitter dopamine sparks movement, but does not sustain it, according to a Portuguese and American study with implications for the development of Parkinson’s… (weiter lesen)
Here’s some more news on the Parkinson’s front, with a possible risk factor (and possible protective agent) both coming from an unexpected direction. It’s… (weiter lesen)
Gene transfer methodologies are being explored as strategies to restore and preserve neuronal function in Parkinson’s Disease. This technology represents a new therapeutic modality,… (weiter lesen)
Summary: A new study reveals Parkinson’s patients have more copies of mitochondrial DNA in the brain stem, leading to increased cell death within that… (weiter lesen)